The human brain is a complex organ inside the head of living things that controls temperature, breathing, memory, thoughts, vision, and motor skills.
The human brain is also known as the crown jewel of the human body.
The human brain is delicate, so it’s covered with the skull which consists of 22 bones and three tough membranes called the meanings, it weighs 1 pound at birth but as you develop into an adult, it weighs 3 pounds.
The brain is made up of two cells: neurons and glial cells, the neurons are responsible for sending and receiving impulses or signals while the glial cells provide support and nutrition, maintain hemostasis, form myelin, and facilitate signal transmission in the nervous system.
Parts of the human brain
The human brain is divided into three main parts: the forebrain, the hindbrain, and the midbrain.
The forebrain(prosencephalon): this is the largest and anterior part of the brain, it controls reproductive functions, emotions, temperature, and sleep, it consists of
The cerebrum: it performs complex functions such as thinking, memory, intelligence, emotions, consciousness,
Hypothalamus: it controls behaviors such as hunger, thirst, sexual response, and sleep and it also regulates blood pressure, secretion of hormones, emotions, and body temperatures
Thalamus: it plays a role in attention, alertness, and memory.
Hindbrain(rhombencephalon): it’s the rear portion of the brain and is located at the back portion of the human brain, it controls all activities in the body that happens without us thinking about them like breathing, sneezing, blood pressure, and swallowing, the hindbrain is divided into.
Cerebellum: it’s responsible for balance and posture, vision, mental function, movement, and motor learning
Pons: it contains a cell group that transfers information from the cerebral to the cerebellum, it’s also made up of tracts that connect the spinal cord with higher brain levels, it controls unconscious processes, it controls the magnitude and frequency of respiration, it’s involved in sensation such as taste, hearing and balance
Medulla Oblongata: it controls reflex actions such as sneezing, swallowing and vomiting, contraction of blood vessels, cardiac rate, and breathing rhythms.
Midbrain(mesencephalon): it’s that part of the brain that’s responsible for vision, arousal, alertness, hearing temperature regulations, it’s located above the hindbrain, it connects the hindbrain and the forebrain, the midbrain consists of
Colliculi: it contains two pairs of bulging; layered bundles of neurons called the superior and inferior colliculi. The superior colliculus receives input from the retina and visual cortex and participates in a variety of visual reflexes while the inferior colliculi receive both crossed and uncrossed auditory fibers and project upon the medial geniculate body, the auditory relay nucleus of the thalamus.
Functions of the human brain
The human brain is capable of a lot of things such as:
- It enables us to have memories and feelings.
- it controls and coordinates actions and reactions.
- it controls motor skills.
- it controls vision.
- it controls organs of the body.
Disorders of the brain
A lot of disorders can happen to the human brain, some of which can be hereditary, and some caused by accidents, the following are examples of brain disorders:
Alzheimer’s disease: this is caused by an abnormal build-up of proteins in and around the brain, this disease causes the brain to shrink and the brain cells to die, Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia which is the loss of memory.
Parkinson’s disease: it’s a brain disorder that leads to difficulty in walking, movement, and coordination, its primary symptoms are trembling in hands, arms, legs, and face, impaired balance, and coordination. It’s more in people from age 50 years and above, as at the time this article was written, there was no cure for this disorder.
Brain tumors: these are abnormal cells growing inside the brain and they can happen to anyone irrespective of their age, the symptoms of brain tumors are headaches, seizures, vision, hearing, and speech impairments.
Conclusion: the human brain is an important organ of the body that controls all the functions in the body ranging from speech, vision, thoughts, emotions, etc. It is a delicate part and so it’s covered with a skull, disorders of the human brain can either be hereditary or caused by other factors such as age, if you discover a change in your behavior as a result of the brain, please, see a doctor.